Posted by: Gary Ernest Davis on: May 18, 2011

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* fusc*, of a non-negative integer variable, as follows:

,

,

and

Dijkstra’s writings on *fusc* can be found at the Edgar W. Dijkstra Archive (EWD 578).

The values of *fusc* can be computed in any decent programming language (one that has a built-in routine for recognizing odd and even integers – otherwise one has to define such a routine, or include it in the definition of *fusc*).

Here is a simple *Mathematica*â„¢ definition that allows us to compute *fusc* easily:

**fusc[0] = 0;**

**fusc[1] = 1;**

**fusc[n_] := ****If[Mod[n, 2] == 0, fusc[n/2], fusc[(n – 1)/2] + fusc[(n + 1)/2]]**

Here are the first 100 values of *fusc*:

0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 3, 1, 4, 3, 5, 2, 5, 3, 4, 1, 5, 4, 7, 3, 8, 5, 7, 2, 7, 5, 8, 3, 7, 4, 5, 1, 6, 5, 9, 4, 11, 7, 10, 3, 11, 8, 13, 5, 12, 7, 9, 2, 9, 7, 12, 5, 13, 8, 11, 3, 10, 7, 11, 4, 9, 5, 6, 1, 7, 6, 11, 5, 14, 9, 13, 4, 15, 11, 18, 7, 17, 10, 13, 3, 14, 11, 19, 8, 21, 13, 18, 5, 17, 12, 19, 7, 16, 9, 11, 2, 11, 9, 16, 7

and a plot of versus for :

Among other properties of *fusc*, Dijstrka noticed that is a multiple of 2 exactly when is a multiple of 3.

For example, we see that for multiples of 3 up to 99, the value of *fusc* is a multiple of 2:

n = multiple of 3 | fusc(n) |

0 | 0 |

3 | 2 |

6 | 2 |

9 | 4 |

12 | 2 |

15 | 4 |

18 | 4 |

21 | 8 |

24 | 2 |

27 | 8 |

30 | 4 |

33 | 6 |

36 | 4 |

39 | 10 |

42 | 8 |

45 | 12 |

48 | 2 |

51 | 12 |

54 | 8 |

57 | 10 |

60 | 4 |

63 | 6 |

66 | 6 |

69 | 14 |

72 | 4 |

75 | 18 |

78 | 10 |

81 | 14 |

84 | 8 |

87 | 18 |

90 | 12 |

93 | 16 |

96 | 2 |

99 | 16 |

Equally, for values of up toÂ 100 that are not multiples of 3, is not a multiple of 2.

This empirical observation requires explanation.

Mathematics thrives on spotting and explaining patterns, especially unexpected patterns, for which there is no immediate reason why they should hold.

To begin looking for a reason for this empirical observation let’s assume that is a multiple of 3.

is either even or odd, so let’s assume first that it is even.

Then for some non-negative integer .

This gives us .

Now when is a *smaller* multiple of 3 than is , so if we assume, inductively, that for all smaller multiples of 3 we already know the value of *fusc* is a multiple of 2, then we know that is also a multiple of 2.

What if is a multiple of 3 and is odd?

Then for some non-negative integer , so

Now, are smaller than , so we can assume we already know their *fusc* values, but because these numbers are not multiples of 3, we can assume that we already know their *fusc* values are not multiples of 2.

In other words, we already know that is odd and is odd, so their sum is even, and therefore is even.

This reasoning tells us:

If is a multiple of 3 then is a multiple of 2 ………… (*)

What if is not a multiple of 3?

Can we reason, as the evidence suggests, that is not a multiple of 2?

If is not a multiple of 3 then or for some non-negative integer .

We first consider the case .

is either even or odd, so let’s assume first that it is even.

In this case is odd so .

Because is smaller than and is also not a multiple of 3, we can assume that we already know is not a multiple of 2.

Therefore, in this case, is not a multiple of 2.

Now consider the case where is odd.

In this case is even so .

In this sum we can assume we already know the values of and and that is even while is odd.

Therefore is odd.

This deals with the case when . The case is dealt with similarly.

So we have established:

If is a not a multiple of 3 then is notÂ a multiple of 2 ………… (*)

and combining (*) and (**) we have:

isÂ a multiple of 2 exactly when is a multiple of 3 ………… (***)

The basis of this reasoning is induction. Because we calculate *fusc* recursively we can assume, when calculating, that we already know properties of for values .

The induction needs a starting point, just as does the calculation of values of *fusc*, so we need to check these assumed properties are true for (which they are).

Dijkstra raised the question of when is divisible by 3. Such divisibility questions do not have clear and simple answers, yet lead into deeper and interesting explorations.

The first few integers for which are 5, 7, 10, 14, 20, 28, 40, 56, 80, 112, 160, 224, 320, 448, 640, 896, 1280, 1792, 2560, 3584

Show exactly when .

I love the plot to 1000. Very fractal!

1 | Patrick Honner

May 18, 2011 at 3:52 pm

Very cool stuff. Thanks for introducing me to the “fusc” function–I teach recursion and induction in my Math Research class, and I’m always looking for new material.

I, too, find that the best way to get students to the core ideas of recursion and induction is by making them get their hands dirty by experimenting and playing around with sequences, as you’ve done here. Another great feature is the potential for students to create their one “fusc-like” sequences!